Tuesday 23 April 2013

23 April - The Feast of St George, the Roman Protector of the English Realm

Hans von Aachen. St George slaying the Dragon.

The Feast of St George

St George for Merrie England!

Today is the Feast of St George, Protector of the English Realm.

He is not the Patron Saint of England - that is St Edmund, King and Martyr.

St George was born to a Christian family during the late third century. His father was from Cappadocia and served as an officer of the Roman army. His mother was from Lydda in Palestine.

St George followed his father into the army. It seems he was of equestrian, or knightly and thus noble, rank in Roman society and he appears to have pursued the cursus honorum beginning as a cavalryman or knight, a position reserved only for those of the knightly class. The better quality commanders among the cavalry or knights went on to command as Decurion and later were selected as Tribunus militis or Military Tribune, an officer who was one of 5 staff officers in a Legion.

The Roman Senate was selected from the ranks of the knights or equestrian class, and the Patrician and Senatorial classes, the supreme nobility of Rome, who were able to trace their lineage to the Senatorial families of the early days of Rome, especially those who had seen extensive military service in defence of Rome and its empire.

The Roman Senate

St George was stationed in Nicomedia as a member of the personal guard attached to Roman Emperor Diocletian and was promoted comes or Count, a title, meaning a “companion”, or sometimes a chamberlain, of the Emperor, an imperial appointment either civil or military (from this idea derived the Counts-Palatine or Paladins of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne).

Many titles of nobility have a military origin including those of imperator (later Emperor but originally meaning the commander-in-chief of the army, lit., “giver of orders”), dux (later Duke or army commander), legatus (Legate – the commander of a legion, and of senatorial rank), tribunus (staff officer of equestrian class already mentioned), praefectus castrorum (Prefect of the Camp, the most veteran soldier in the Legion but non-equestrian), primus pilus (“first spear”, the most senior centurion and commander of the first cohort, non-equestrian but usually ennobled on retirement), pilus prior (first centurion of each cohort and often its commander), primi ordines (the 5 centurions of the first cohort), centurio (centurion – the commander of a “century” of 100 men) and optio (the second-in-command of a century but able to read and write, usually).

Gaius Julius Caesar,
Roman general, patrician, equestrian, senator and imperator

Each legion had 10 cohorts usually each of 6 centuries (sometimes divided into 3 maniples of 2 centuries each), plus 300 or more cavalry and assorted light infantry, light cavalry and auxiliaries (often of non-Roman origin) totalling about 6,600 men.

A Military Legate is thus roughly equivalent to a brigadier-general, a Military Tribune to an equestrian major, lieutenant-colonel or colonel, a pilus prior to a non-equestrian lieutenant colonel, risen from the ranks, and a centurion to a non-equestrian captain or major, risen from the ranks.

Dante Gabriel Rosetti. The Wedding of St George and Princess Sabra. 1857.

In 303 AD Emperor Diocletian issued an edict authorizing the systematic persecution of Christians across the Empire.

St George was ordered to participate in the persecution but instead confessed to being a Christian himself and criticized the imperial decision. An enraged Diocletian ordered his torture and execution.

After various tortures, including laceration on a wheel of swords, in which he was miraculously resuscitated three times, St George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on 23 April 303.

A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra to become Christian as well and she joined St George in martyrdom.

St George’s body was returned to Lydda for burial, where Christians soon came to honour him as a martyr.

The story of St George and the Dragon is by no means necessarily impossible, since reptiles of various sorts were often called dragons in former times.

Even today, the Komodo dragon is still so called.

Dragons of today:
Indonesian Komodo dragons, up to 10 feet in length and up to 365 lbs weight, poison-mouthed and potentially lethal, can be seen to this day

Ancient depictions of “fire-breathing” dragons have been misinterpreted.

They were so depicted to indicate the poisonous breath and mouth of such animals. Since it is the case that the Komodo dragon has precisely such a poisonous mouth, by virtue of the bacteria living therein, its venom and its diet, the earlier depictions start to look remarkably scientific and not mythical at all.

The deadliest bacteria in the Komodo dragon saliva appears to be a very deadly strain of Pasteurella multocida, from studies performed with lab mice.

Alternatively, the dragon might have been a crocodile or alligator which certainly can be found in North Africa near water.

This dragon was said to have made its nest at the spring providing water for a city in the Middle East. The citizens had to dislodge the dragon from its nest for a time, in order to collect water. To do so, and to distract the dragon, each day they had to offer the dragon at first a sheep, then a human, to distract it and the humans were often attacked and killed.

In their heathenism, the people treated the dragon as an evil spirit that had to be placated. The victim was chosen by drawing lots. One ill-favoured day, the lot fell upon the daughter of the king who begged for her life but this partiality was rejected by the citizenry.

St George, who was in the country with his troops, scorning both heathenism and the dragon, set out, warmly encouraged of course by the king, to rescue the princess. He spurned the heathen ignorance that treated the dragon as an evil spirit to be placated and, recognising the animal as no more than a savage beast, took a scientific, rather than superstitious, view.

He slew the dragon in mortal combat, using his human intelligence to outwit, and his courage to defeat, the dragon.

The grateful citizens abandoned heathenism and converted enthusiastically to the religion of St George, namely Christianity.

Ever after, the story was seen as the triumph of Christian truth over pagan superstition, science over ignorance and the supernatural over corrupted nature. Inevitably, it became a great Christian allegory. However, the assumption that it must, therefore, be a fable and not true, is a false assumption. The Bible is full of allegory but that does not mean it is false.

A church built in Lydda during the reign of the Emperor Constantine I (306–337), was consecrated to St George and his cultus became one of the greatest in Christendom.

This church was destroyed in 1010 but was later rebuilt and dedicated to St George by the Western Crusaders who quickly came to embrace his cult. In 1191 the church was again destroyed by the Ayyubid Sultan, Sala’haddin (Saladin), during the 3rd Crusade.

The Crusaders wore the red cross of St George, popularised by the Knights Templar

By the fifth century the cult of St George reached the Western Roman Empire and in 494, George was canonised as a saint by Pope Gelasius I. The cult was promoted much in England by King Alfred the Great.

An apparition of St George is said to have heartened the Franks at the Siege of Antioch, 1098, and made a similar appearance the following year at Jerusalem.

Chivalric military orders of St George were established in Aragon (1201), Genoa, Hungary, and by Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Byzantine emperors had a great devotion to St George and the Palaeologue emperors created an order to restore the Labarum Guard of the Emperor Constantine, being the 50 knights who guarded the Labarum, a standard emblazoned with the Chi-Rho symbol that the Emperor Constantine had seen in the sky before his victory on the Milvian Bridge.

They dedicated this Order to St George giving it the symbol of the Cross and the Chi-Rho surrounded by the initials IHSV standing for "In Hoc Signo Vinces" - "In this Sign shalt thou conquer". The Order was bequeathed to the Farnese family by the Palaeologues in exile who thus succeeded to the Grand Magistracy.

Here is the Gold Star of the Order with the Chi-Rho and the IHSV - In Hoc Signo Vinces.

The Star of a Knight of Justice of the Constantinian Order of St George

Today the Order's Grand Master is HRH the Infante Don Carlos of Spain.

King Edward III put his Order of the Garter under the banner of St George. In England the Synod of Oxford, in 1222, declared St George's Day a great feast day in the Kingdom of England and, famously, his name was invoked by English kings in battle, not least King Henry V at Agincourt.

His feast was raised to a Festum duplex at a church council in 1415, on the date that had become associated with his martyrdom, 23 April.

William Shakespeare was born and died on 23 April, St George's Day.

William Shakespeare was born on St George’s Day

The Order of the Garter is still given in the name of “God, our Lady and St George” and features an image of St George slaying the Dragon. The hip decoration, at the bottom of the sash, is still called “the lesser George”.

The original Garter Star was always diamond-encrusted until, after the illegal seizure of the throne, from the legitimate Royal Stuarts by the Protestant German Hanoverians, the diamonds were only retained for the Sovereign and consort.

The Garter blue of the sash was also darkened so as to distinguish it from the ancient, lighter, colour which was associated with the Royal Stuarts.

The diamond-encrusted Garter Star was, under the Royal Stuarts, given to all Garter knights, but now, since the advent of the Protestant Hanoverian Whigs, to the Sovereign and consort only, other knights receiving but cut metal Garter stars

The Garter Star features, to this day, in a great many military symbols e.g. the rank stars of officers in the Household Cavalry and the Household Division and in the Honourable Artillery Company. St George features in a great many other military symbols and traditions of the British armed forces and in British society generally.

St George’s Day is, indeed, a great day to be celebrated in the Kingdom of England and for Great Britain.

The Queen in the Garter procession as Sovereign of the Order. The Garter is still conferred in the name of "God, our Lady and St George".

~~ " ~~

“Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more;
Or close the wall up with our English dead.
In peace there's nothing so becomes a man
As modest stillness and humility:
But when the blast of war blows in our ears,
Then imitate the action of the tiger;
Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood,
Disguise fair nature with hard-favour'd rage;
Then lend the eye a terrible aspect;
Let pry through the portage of the head
Like the brass cannon; let the brow o'erwhelm it
As fearfully as doth a galled rock
O'erhang and jutty his confounded base,
Swill'd with the wild and wasteful ocean.
Now set the teeth and stretch the nostril wide,
Hold hard the breath and bend up every spirit
To his full height. On, on, you noblest English.
Whose blood is set from fathers of war-proof!
Fathers that, like so many Alexanders,
Have in these parts from morn till even fought
And sheathed their swords for lack of argument:
Dishonour not your mothers; now attest
That those whom you call'd fathers did beget you.
Be copy now to men of grosser blood,
And teach them how to war. And you, good yeoman,
Whose limbs were made in England, show us here
The mettle of your pasture; let us swear
That you are worth your breeding; which I doubt not;
For there is none of you so mean and base,
That hath not noble lustre in your eyes.
I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips,
Straining upon the start. The game's afoot:
Follow your spirit, and upon this charge

'God for Harry, England, and Saint George!'


Sunday 14 April 2013

Good Shepherd Sunday - "I know my sheep and they know me..."

Ego sum Pastor bonus, allelúja: et cognósco oves Meas, et cognóscunt Me Meæ. Allelúja, allelúja.

I am the good Shepherd, alleluia: and I know My sheep, and Mine know Me, alleluia, alleluia.

The Gospel is from John 10: 11-16:

In illo témpore: Dixit Jesus Pharisæis: "Ego sum Pastor bonus. Bonus pastor ánimam suam dat pro óvibus. Mercenárius autem et qui non est pastor, cujus non sunt oves própriæ, videt lupum veniéntem, et dimíttit oves, et fugit: et lupus rapit et dispérgit oves: mercenárius autem fugit, quia mercenárius est, et non pértinet ad eum de óvibus. Ego sum Pastor bonus: et cognósco oves meas, et cognóscunt me meæ. Sicut novit me Pater, et ego agnósco Patrem: et ánimam meam pono pro óvibus meis. Et alias oves hábeo, qum non sunt ex hoc ovíli: et illas opórtet me addúcere, et vocem meam áudient, et fiat unum ovíile, et unus pastor."

At that time Jesus said to the Pharisees: "I am the good Shepherd. The good Shepherd giveth his life for his sheep. But the hireling, and he that is not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming and leaveth the sheep and flieth: and the wolf catcheth and scattereth the sheep: and the hireling flieth, because he is a hireling, and he hath no care for the sheep. I am the good Shepherd: and I know Mine, and Mine know Me, as the Father knoweth Me, and I know the Father: and I lay down My life for My sheep. And other sheep I have that are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one fold and one shepherd."

Take note all pastors and bishops and be not hirelings but true shepherds.

We should also note that our Lord says He has sheep that are "not of this fold" who shall hear His voice - perhaps better than those who are currently of His Flock - and they shall become part of the Flock, too.

This should teach us to be humble and not to presume or become complacent. Some who are not currently of the Flock may be judged better than us to sit amongst the saints in Heaven.

Let us pray for them, also, and remember that the Catholic Church is for all, including those who are not yet members. It is not a convenient little club only for cradle Catholics.

God chose the Israelites but all but a few later rejected Him and he transferred His favour to the Gentiles who converted to Him and loved Him better than many of His own chosen people.

Lord Jesus, Good Shepherd of us, your flock, have mercy on us and protect us!


The visions and miracle at San Sebastián de Garabandal in Northern Spain

There is much said in various revelations and apparitions of modern times about a Warning, a Miracle and a Chastisement in the not too distant future.

Shall we give cognizance to these things? If so, how much and what?

St Pius of Pietrelcina ("Padre Pio") clearly believed in these future developments and, in particular, in the apparitions and messages of our Lady given to the González children in the little village in the mountains of northern Spain called San Sebastián de Garabandal.

St Pius also believed in the coming miracle and chastisement, whilst recognising that the latter is conditional upon the response of men to the messages of our Lady and our Lord. If men turn from their evil lives and embrace prayer, penance, sacrifice and good lives, then the chastisement will be curtailed or avoided.

But, if they do not, then men can expect a chastisement which has been described at apparitions such at that of our Lady of Akita, in northern Japan, as worse than the Flood - a very sobering and disturbing thought.

These visions given to Sr Agnes Sasagawa have been approved by the local bishop and by Rome so that they, given their apocalyptic content, command our attention.

Additionally, at Akita, the statue of the Virgin wept salt tears in copious quantities - a very clearly miraculous event since wooden or plaster statues cannot weep tears, let alone in such quantities. And, no, for the sceptics, there isn't a secret hose concealed in the statue - anyone is free to check the statue very carefully for themselves!

The miraculous weeping statue of our Lady at Akita, northern Japan

The approved apparitions of our Lady at La Salette in southern France, at Fatima, at Akita and in other places, clearly point to a great chastisement or punishment which will fall upon mankind if there is no turning back to God.

Whilst this may have been deserved in times past, in the 19th century when men were turning openly against God and staging revolutions against the Church and the State, looking to destroy both and to fashion a spurious new world order in the image of man, how much more is it deserved in our own age of utter licentiousness, godlessness and venality when men have become so corrupted by evil?

Shall we then simply ignore the messages that seem to be pouring down from heaven, warning us of the consequences of our ill deeds, and imploring us to return to God and to the good?

The present level of godlessness and atheism seems unprecedented so it would be very strange if God and our Lady stood back, insouciant and unconcerned at the sorry plight of men.

In fact, our Lord and our Lady have done the reverse. They seem to have been appearing everywhere to warn mankind but always, as ever, respecting the free will of men to choose good or ill. The petitions of the Blessed Virgin have been particularly pathetic and imploring to us.

Shall we listen?

Yes, we must!

But we must also discern and not allow ourselves to be led astray by the Enemy of mankind, the Devil and his legions, who are adept at imitating apparitions falsely. So we must be cautious of false visions. Let us judge them, firstly, by listening to the Church's judgment and, absent any such judgment, by what is taught at such apparitions. If they teach any false or loose doctrine, then we must beware of them.

The Garabandal apparitions were apparitions of Saint Michael the Archangel and the Blessed Virgin Mary that are claimed to have occurred from 1961 to 1965 to four young schoolgirls in the rural village of San Sebastián de Garabandal in the Peña Sagra mountain range in the autonomous community of Cantabria in Northern Spain.

The apparitions drew huge crowds, and featured self-evidently paranormal phenomena, many filmed or photographed, with thousands of witnesses.

The girls receiving the visions were Mari Loli Mazón(1 May 1949- 20 April 2009), Jacinta González (born 27 April 1949), Mari Cruz González (born 21 June 1950) and Concepcion "Conchita" González (born 7 February 1949). The girls were not related despite having the same name.

I have not found anything contrary to the teaching of the Church in the messages given at Garabandal. However, everyone must decide for himself by examining what occurred, and what was said, since the Church has yet to deliver a final judgment.

The children in ecstasy, seeing the Blessed Virgin, at San Sebastian de Garabandal in northern Spain in 1961

It is significant that St Pius believed them. Bl John Paul II was a great devotee of St Pius. That, too, is indicative.

At the time, the Bishop of Santander determined a non constat—that is, the events could not be confirmed to be of supernatural origin.

In 21 April 1970, Cardinal Franjo Seper, then Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, backed the Bishop, discouraged pilgrimages to Garabandal and scolded those who sought to minimise the stance of the Bishop who is, in the first instance, the proper authority in such matters. Cardinal Seper said:

"…the Holy See has never approved even indirectly the Garabandal movement…it has never encouraged or blessed Garabandal promoters or centres. Rather the Holy See deplores that fact that certain persons and Institutions persist in setting out the movement in obvious contradiction to the dispositions of ecclesiastical authority and thus disseminate confusion among the people especially among the simple and defenceless”.

However, in April 2007, Joseph “Joey” Lomangino, founder of one of the largest Garabandal organisations in the USA, received from Conchita a letter, dated 12 February 2007, she had herself received from Archbishop Carlos Sierra of Oviedo, then the acting Apostolic Administrator for the Diocese of Santander, which read:

“I want you to know that I am open to receiving and considering all information about Garabandal, and would like to continue—as long as our Holy Father wishes me to serve as Apostolic Administrator—the work that my brothers at the Bishopric have already done in reference to this subject. What I have just done is authorize the priests to go to Garabandal and say Holy Mass at the Parish, at any desired time, and to administer the Sacrament of Reconciliation to anyone that wishes to receive it. I am sure the next Bishop will promote further studies to examine in depth the Garabandal events and will send the findings to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome. I respect apparitions and have known of authentic conversions. How can we not always feel the need to open our heart to our Mother Mary to tell her that we need her protection, her help, her courage, her hope, her faith and her love when faced with these events! I encourage you to keep maintaining such devotion toward our Mother”.

Lomangino, when young, had been in an accident and lost both sight and smell. He regained his sense of smell when in the confessional with St Pius of Pietrelcina. He then visited Garabandal where one of the visionaries was told that he would regain his sight on the day of "the Miracle". Joey Lomangino has since died so, if indeed this was what the visionary was told, it cannot mean that he will regain his sight in this life.

That the visions were paranormal and either supernatural (i.e. from heaven) or praeternatural (i.e. not from heaven but probably from either hell or purgatory) is evident from some of the filmed material made at the time. Particularly striking are the ecstatic walks of the children in which, without looking, they walked without stumbling or falling or stubbing their toes, even when going backwards fast.

Later still, came a miraculous reception of Holy Communion which was also photographed by on-lookers. The children are said to have received Holy Communion from the hands of angels (who, in turn, took them from tabernacles since angels cannot consecrate the Host).

On this occasion, the Host appeared miraculously as the angel gave it to Conchita on the tongue. To on-lookers it seemed as if the Host materialised out of thin air on the tongue of the child. The following is one of the photographs taken of that incident. it is a poor photograph but its veracity is confirmed by many on-lookers who saw the event.

The miraculous communion of Conchita, poorly photographed but well attested by on-lookers present at the time

These occurrences clearly show something paranormal occurring and of that there can be little doubt. But are they from heaven? That is the question which must be determined ultimately by the Church.

However, for the present, it is a matter of legitimate private judgement (particularly as the 1983 Code of Canon Law allows more freedom to the Faithful to make pilgrimages to not-yet-approved places of apparition).

It is significant that St Pius recognised the visions, as I said, and that nothing contrary to Catholic doctrine is evident in the messages.

The pines above the village of Garabandal where many of the apparitions occurred

Part of one of the messages was very startling at the time, but much less so now when we have the evidence of our own eyes that it is true. On 18 June 1965, our Lady is said to have told Conchita, the principal visionary, via an angel:

"As my Message of the 18th of October has not been complied with, and as it has not been made known to the world, I am telling you that this is the last one. Previously, the Cup was filling; now, it is brimming over. Many cardinals, many bishops and many priests are following the road to perdition, and with them they are taking many more souls. Ever less importance is being given to the Holy Eucharist. We should turn the wrath of God away from us by our own efforts. If you ask His forgiveness with a sincere heart. He will pardon you. I, your Mother, through the intercession of St Michael the Archangel, wish to tell you that you should make amends. You are now being given the last warnings. I love you very much, and I do not want your condemnation. Ask Us sincerely and We shall grant your plea. You must make more sacrifices. Reflect on the Passion of Jesus."

Given this, it is perhaps not surprising that Cardinal Seper was reluctant to allow pilgrimages or dissemination of the messages!

However, now that we know only too well that many cardinals, bishops and priests are following the road to perdition and are taking many more souls with them, and that devotion to the Holy Eucharist has become weak, we are no longer so startled by this revelation. Alas, it is all too true and many other evils, as well!

We are told that, within a year before the Miracle, there will be a world-wide Warning which will be a personal interior vision or locution, with some unknown but powerful external signs, to every person living which will show us our conscience and cause us great grief at our sins and missed graces. It will be a "wake up" call for mankind. We are even told that some will perish as a result of the experience, presumably at the shock of it.

We are told that the Miracle will be a permanent sign at the pine grove, situated just above the little village, the place of many of the apparitions.

This "sign" will be something one can appear to touch but not feel, "like smoke" says Conchita González (now Conchita Keena and living in New York with her husband and children), which seems to suggest that it may be some sort of miraculous, transparent image that is intangible, permanently visible at the pine grove.

At Garabandal the messages give us a clue as to when these great events are likely to occur. We are told that the Miracle will occur thus:

1. On a Thursday at 8.30pm;
2. On the Feast Day of a martyr of the Blessed Sacrament;
3. On a Feast of great ecclesiastical importance;
4. In March, April or May; and
5. Conchita has been told by our Lady to reveal the exact date, 8 days beforehand.

This may be decipherable, particularly if one accepts that it must occur within the lifetime of the still living Conchita now in old age.

One possibility is 13 April. That date is the Feast of Spanish martyr for the Eucharist, Prince St Hermenegild, whose own father, the King of Visigothic Spain, ordered his execution because he would not take communion from an Arian heretical priest. Prince Hermenegild was imprisoned in Tarragona or Toledo by his father, King Leovigild. During his captivity in the tower of Seville, an Arian bishop was sent to St. Hermenegild during the Easter Season, but he would not accept Holy Communion from the hands of that heretical prelate. King Leovigild ordered him beheaded and he was martyred on 13 April 586.

Prince St Hermenegild refuses to take communion from the hand of an Arian heretical prelate and is thereafter martyred

It is highly significant that this is the feast of a saint who would not take communion from an heretical priest since there are many today who would consider such an action far too "scrupulous" and who quite happily receive communion from priests with heterodox views and from non-Catholic clergy.

We shall know what date is correct because Conchita will confirm the date, 8 days before, there will be a permanent sign at the pine grove in Garabandal and it will be preceded by the Warning.

We can expect the Warning within a year of that date.

Some have suggested that it might be on the Feast day of another martyr of the Eucharist and a Feast day of our Lady. One obvious date would be the Feast of the Assumption which concides with the Feast of St Tarcisius, the young Roman martyr of the Eucharist, i.e. 15 August.

Thereafter, once the Miracle has occurred and been seen, if men do not heed these great events and return to God, then we can expect a fearsome Chastisement, something, again, which St Pius of Pietrelcina believed in and warned about.

The important point which ought not to require to be made but which plainly does need to be made is that now is the time of grace in which we must seize every opportunity for penance, sacrifice, fasting and reparation, lead good lives, pray the Rosary daily, wear the Brown Scapular of our Lady of Mount Carmel and make frequent visits to the Blessed Sacrament. 

We should also attend mass as often as we can, receive Holy Communion and, if possible, partake of the daily prayer of the Church (e.g. Lauds, Vespers etc).


Sunday 7 April 2013

Dominica in Albis Deponendis, Quasimodo Sunday or Low Sunday or Close-Pasch or Divine Mercy Sunday

Dominica in Albis Deponendis
(Sunday when the newly baptised finally put off their white garments of Easter)

also called

Quasimodo Sunday


Low Sunday




the Feast of Divine Mercy

"Quasimodo geniti infantes, alleluia, rationabile sine dolo lac concupiscite. Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia."
"As newborn babes, alleluia, desire the rational milk without guile. Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia" 
[1 Peter 2:2; Introit for the Mass of Low Sunday]

"Deinde dicit Thomae: infer digitum tuum huc et vide manus meas, et affer manum tuam et mitte in latus meum et noli esse incredulus sed fidelis. Respondit Thomas et dixit ei: Dominus meus et Deus meus!"
"Then He said to Thomas 'Put in thy fingers hither and see my hands and bring hither thy hand and put it into my side and be not faithless but believing'. Thomas answered and said to him 'My Lord and my God!' " 
[John 20:27-28; Gospel of Low Sunday]

Caravaggio. Doubting Thomas. 1602-1603.

"Dearly beloved, laying away all malice and all guile and dissimulations and envies and all detractions as newborn babes desire the rational milk without guile, that thereby you may grow unto salvation, if so be you have tasted that the Lord is sweet...for you are a chosen race, a kingly priesthood, a holy nation, a purchased people that you may declare His virtues who hath called you out of darkness into His marvellous light."
[1 Peter 2:2-3, 9]

"Now when it was late that same day, the first of the week, and the doors were shut, where the disciples were gathered together, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them: Peace be to you. And when he had said this, he shewed them his hands and his side. The disciples therefore were glad, when they saw the Lord. He said therefore to them again: Peace be to you. As the Father hath sent me, I also send you. When he had said this, he breathed on them; and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained. Now Thomas, one of the twelve, who is called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said to him: We have seen the Lord. But he said to them: Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe. And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them. Jesus cometh, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said: Peace be to you. Then he saith to Thomas: Put in thy finger hither, and see my hands; and bring hither thy hand, and put it into my side; and be not faithless, but believing. Thomas answered, and said to him: My Lord, and my God. Jesus saith to him: Because thou hast seen me, Thomas, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and have believed."
[John 20:19-29]

"In the Old Covenant I sent prophets wielding thunderbolts to My people. Today I am sending you with My mercy to the people of the whole world. I do not want to punish aching mankind, but I desire to heal it, pressing it to My Merciful Heart. (1588)

It's a sign for the end times; after it will come the day of justice. While there is still time, let them have recourse to the fount of My mercy; let them profit from the Blood and Water which gushed forth for them. (848)

Before I come as a just Judge, I first open wide the doors of My mercy. He who refuses to pass through the doors of My mercy must pass through the doors of My justice... (1146)"
[Diary of Divine Mercy, Revelation of our Lord to St Maria Faustina (Kowalska) of the Blessed Sacrament]

St Faustina Kowalska, messenger of Divine Mercy
"Sanctus Deus, Sanctus Fortis, Sanctus Immortalis, miserere nobis" [Latin]
"Hagios Theos, hagios ischyros, hagios athanatos, eleison imas" [Greek]
"Elohim hakadosh, Elohim hakol yakhol, rakhem aleinu, veal kol haolam" [Hebrew]
"Holy God, Holy Mighty One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us"

[The ancient prayer of the Trisagion from the Improperia or "Reproaches" of the Good Friday liturgy in Latin, Greek, Aramaic and English, dating back to at least the 5th century. They form part of the Divine Mercy prayers requested of St Faustina by our Lord.]

"Feed my sheep".
Rafaello Sanzio. The gift of the keys to Peter.


Saturday 6 April 2013

Memo to bishop: even the disabled understand Latin better than many clergy...

How many times have you heard the lame excuse from Novus Ordo prelates that the Faithful don't understand Latin.

It is, of course, nonsense.

If you go to the Latin Mass often enough you soon understand it very well.

At a Latin Mass recently I was particularly moved to see two severely handicapped boys not only speaking the Latin word-perfect but also even singing it, again word perfect. And yet these two boys have grave difficulty speaking at all, normally.

Got that, bishops and prelates?

These two handicapped boys, who normally can hardly speak, can recite and sing the Latin better than most of your modern day, idle and unlearned clergy who have no handicap at all.

What a disgrace for those lamentably ignorant clergy who can't even be bothered to learn what two disabled boys were able to learn!

Gee! I dunno about Latin. It's all Greek to me! But I'm great on Mickey Mouse...

For nearly 2,000 years Latin rite Catholics heard mass in Latin and were able to understand it. The familiarity with the words of the mass lifted the ordinary Faithful up to a higher level of learning, rather than dumbing down the liturgical rites to the lowest level of understanding.

Now that so many clergy and bishops are so ill-educated, lazy and just plain dumb, they expect everyone else to lower themselves to their same minimalist standard!

It is just a disgrace.

And just plain dumb...

Tuesday 2 April 2013

The Deutero-canonical books of the Bible: dispelling yet more Protestant myths and fantasies...

The Deutero-canonical books
yet further proof that the Bible is a Catholic, not a Protestant, book, given to the world by the Roman Catholic Church

Original Greek manuscripts of the original Greek texts of the Bible

One correspondent has asked me (in response to a post way back in 2008) why it is that the "Catholic" Bible of today includes books that are not included by the Fathers of the Church.

What books?

If he means the Deutero-canonical books then he is simply wrong.

They ARE included by the Church Fathers.

The following will show why. I have taken it from the excellent resources of Catholic Answers founded by Dr Karl Keating.

This commentary by Catholic Answers can be found here:


and has an imprimatur from the Bishop of San Diego.

Here is the commentary (incorrect American spelling is, of course, corrected):

During the Reformation, primarily for doctrinal reasons, Protestants removed seven books from the Old Testament: 1 and 2 Maccabees, Sirach, Wisdom, Baruch, Tobit, and Judith, and parts of two others, Daniel and Esther. They did so even though these books had been regarded as canonical since the beginning of Church history.

As Protestant church historian J. N. D. Kelly writes, "It should be observed that the Old Testament thus admitted as authoritative in the Church was somewhat bulkier and more comprehensive [than the Protestant Bible]. . . . It always included, though with varying degrees of recognition, the so-called apocrypha or deuterocanonical books" (Early Christian Doctrines, 53), which are rejected by Protestants. 

Below we give patristic quotations from each of the deuterocanonical books. Notice how the Fathers quoted these books along with the protocanonicals. The deuterocanonicals are those books of the Old Testament that were included in the Bible even though there had been some discussion about whether they should be. 

Also included are the earliest official lists of the canon. For the sake of brevity these are not given in full. When the lists of the canon cited here are given in full, they include all the books and only the books found in the modern Catholic Bible. 

When examining the question of what books were originally included in the Old Testament canon, it is important to note that some of the books of the Bible have been known by more than one name. Sirach is also known as Ecclesiasticus, 1 and 2 Chronicles as 1 and 2 Paralipomenon, Ezra and Nehemiah as 1 and 2 Esdras, and 1 and 2 Samuel with 1 and 2 Kings as 1, 2, 3, and 4 Kings—that is, 1 and 2 Samuel are named 1 and 2 Kings, and 1 and 2 Kings are named 3 and 4 Kings. The history and use of these designations is explained more fully in Scripture reference works. 
The Didache

"You shall not waver with regard to your decisions [Sir. 1:28]. Do not be someone who stretches out his hands to receive but withdraws them when it comes to giving [Sir. 4:31]" (Didache 4:5 [A.D. 70]). 
The Letter of Barnabas

"Since, therefore, [Christ] was about to be manifested and to suffer in the flesh, his suffering was foreshown. For the prophet speaks against evil, ‘Woe to their soul, because they have counselled an evil counsel against themselves’ [Is. 3:9], saying, ‘Let us bind the righteous man because he is displeasing to us’ [Wis. 2:12.]" (Letter of Barnabas 6:7 [A.D. 74]). 
Clement of Rome

"By the word of his might [God] established all things, and by his word he can overthrow them. ‘Who shall say to him, "What have you done?" or who shall resist the power of his strength?’ [Wis. 12:12]" (Letter to the Corinthians 27:5 [ca. A.D. 80]).

St Clement of Rome  

Polycarp of Smyrna

"Stand fast, therefore, in these things, and follow the example of the Lord, being firm and unchangeable in the faith, loving the brotherhood [1 Pet. 2:17].

. . . When you can do good, defer it not, because ‘alms delivers from death’ [Tob. 4:10, 12:9]. Be all of you subject to one another [1 Pet. 5:5], having your conduct blameless among the Gentiles [1 Pet. 2:12], and the Lord may not be blasphemed through you. But woe to him by whom the name of the Lord is blasphemed [Is. 52:5]!" (Letter to the Philadelphians 10 [A.D. 135]). 

"Those . . . who are believed to be presbyters by many, but serve their own lusts and do not place the fear of God supreme in their hearts, but conduct themselves with contempt toward others and are puffed up with the pride of holding the chief seat [Matt. 23:6] and work evil deeds in secret, saying ‘No man sees us,’ shall be convicted by the Word, who does not judge after outward appearance, nor looks upon the countenance, but the heart; and they shall hear those words to be found in Daniel the prophet: ‘O you seed of Canaan and not of Judah, beauty has deceived you and lust perverted your heart’ [Dan. 13:56]. You that have grown old in wicked days, now your sins which you have committed before have come to light, for you have pronounced false judgments and have been accustomed to condemn the innocent and to let the guilty go free, although the Lord says, ‘You shall not slay the innocent and the righteous’ [Dan. 13:52, citing Ex. 23:7]" (Against Heresies 4:26:3 [A.D. 189]; Daniel 13 is not in the Protestant Bible).

"Jeremiah the prophet has pointed out that as many believers as God has prepared for this purpose, to multiply those left on the earth, should both be under the rule of the saints and to minister to this [new] Jerusalem and that [his] kingdom shall be in it, saying, ‘Look around Jerusalem toward the east and behold the joy which comes to you from God himself. Behold, your sons whom you have sent forth shall come: They shall come in a band from the east to the west. . . . God shall go before with you in the light of his splendour, with the mercy and righteousness which proceed from him’ [Bar. 4:36—5:9]" (ibid., 5:35:1; Baruch was often considered part of Jeremiah, as it is here). 

St Irenaeus

"What is narrated here [in the story of Susannah] happened at a later time, although it is placed at the front of the book [of Daniel], for it was a custom with the writers to narrate many things in an inverted order in their writings. . . . [W]e ought to give heed, beloved, fearing lest anyone be overtaken in any transgression and risk the loss of his soul, knowing as we do that God is the judge of all and the Word himself is the eye which nothing that is done in the world escapes. Therefore, always watchful in heart and pure in life, let us imitate Susannah" (Commentary on Daniel [A.D. 204]; the story of Susannah [Dan. 13] is not in the Protestant Bible). 
Cyprian of Carthage

"In Genesis [it says], ‘And God tested Abraham and said to him, "Take your only son whom you love, Isaac, and go to the high land and offer him there as a burnt offering . . ."’ [Gen. 22:1–2]. . . . Of this same thing in the Wisdom of Solomon [it says], ‘Although in the sight of men they suffered torments, their hope is full of immortality . . .’ [Wis. 3:4]. Of this same thing in the Maccabees [it says], ‘Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him for righteousness’ [1 Macc. 2:52; see Jas. 2:21–23]" (Treatises 7:3:15 [A.D. 248]).

"So Daniel, too, when he was required to worship the idol Bel, which the people and the king then worshipped, in asserting the honour of his God, broke forth with full faith and freedom, saying, ‘I worship nothing but the Lord my God, who created the heaven and the earth’ [Dan. 14:5]" (Letters 55:5 [A.D. 253]; Daniel 14 is not in the Protestant Bible).

St Cyprian of Carthage
Council of Rome

"Now indeed we must treat of the divine scriptures, what the universal Catholic Church accepts and what she ought to shun. The order of the Old Testament begins here: Genesis, one book; Exodus, one book; Leviticus, one book; Numbers, one book; Deuteronomy, one book; Joshua [Son of] Nave, one book; Judges, one book; Ruth, one book; Kings, four books [that is, 1 and 2 Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings]; Paralipomenon [Chronicles], two books; Psalms, one book; Solomon, three books: Proverbs, one book, Ecclesiastes, one book, [and] Canticle of Canticles [Song of Songs], one book; likewise Wisdom, one book; Ecclesiasticus [Sirach], one book . . . . Likewise the order of the historical [books]: Job, one book; Tobit, one book; Esdras, two books [Ezra and Nehemiah]; Esther, one book; Judith, one book; Maccabees, two books" (Decree of Pope Damasus [A.D. 382]). 
Council of Hippo

"[It has been decided] that besides the canonical scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the canonical scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon [Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, and a portion of the Psalms], the twelve books of the prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books . . ." (Canon 36 [A.D. 393]). 
Council of Carthage III

"[It has been decided] that nothing except the canonical scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine scriptures. But the canonical scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon, twelve books of the prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees . . ." (Canon 47 [A.D. 397]). 

"The whole canon of the scriptures, however, in which we say that consideration is to be applied, is contained in these books: the five of Moses . . . and one book of Joshua [Son of] Nave, one of Judges; one little book which is called Ruth . . . then the four of Kingdoms, and the two of Paralipomenon . . . . [T]here are also others too, of a different order . . . such as Job and Tobit and Esther and Judith and the two books of Maccabees, and the two of Esdras . . . . Then there are the prophets, in which there is one book of the Psalms of David, and three of Solomon. . . . But as to those two books, one of which is entitled Wisdom and the other of which is entitled Ecclesiasticus and which are called ‘of Solomon’ because of a certain similarity to his books, it is held most certainly that they were written by Jesus Sirach. They must, however, be accounted among the prophetic books, because of the authority which is deservedly accredited to them" (Christian Instruction 2:8:13 [A.D. 397]).

"We read in the books of the Maccabees [2 Macc. 12:43] that sacrifice was offered for the dead. But even if it were found nowhere in the Old Testament writings, the authority of the Catholic Church which is clear on this point is of no small weight, where in the prayers of the priest poured forth to the Lord God at his altar the commendation of the dead has its place" (The Care to be Had for the Dead 1:3 [A.D. 421]).

St Augustine of Hippo
The Apostolic Constitutions

"Now women also prophesied. Of old, Miriam the sister of Moses and Aaron [Ex. 15:20], and after her, Deborah [Judges. 4:4], and after these Huldah [2 Kgs. 22:14] and Judith [Judith 8], the former under Josiah and the latter under Darius" (Apostolic Constitutions 8:2 [A.D. 400]). 

"What sin have I committed if I follow the judgment of the churches? But he who brings charges against me for relating [in my preface to the book of Daniel] the objections that the Hebrews are wont to raise against the story of Susannah [Dan. 13], the Song of the Three Children [Dan. 3:29–68, RSV-CE], and the story of Bel and the Dragon [Dan. 14], which are not found in the Hebrew volume, proves that he is just a foolish sycophant. I was not relating my own personal views, but rather the remarks that they are wont to make against us. If I did not reply to their views in my preface, in the interest of brevity, lest it seem that I was composing not a preface, but a book, I believe I added promptly the remark, for I said, ‘This is not the time to discuss such matters’" (Against Rufinius 11:33 [A.D. 401]).

St Jerome
Father of the original Vulgate Bible
Pope Innocent I

"A brief addition shows what books really are received in the canon. These are the things of which you desired to be informed verbally: of Moses, five books, that is, of Genesis, of Exodus, of Leviticus, of Numbers, of Deuteronomy, and Joshua, of Judges, one book, of Kings, four books, and also Ruth, of the prophets, sixteen books, of Solomon, five books, the Psalms. Likewise of the histories, Job, one book, of Tobit, one book, Esther, one, Judith, one, of the Maccabees, two, of Esdras, two, Paralipomenon, two books . . ." (Letters 7 [A.D. 408]). 

NIHIL OBSTAT: I have concluded that the materials
presented in this work are free of doctrinal or moral errors.
Bernadeane Carr, STL, Censor Librorum, August 10, 2004 
IMPRIMATUR: In accord with 1983 CIC 827
permission to publish this work is hereby granted.
+Robert H. Brom, Bishop of San Diego, August 10, 2004

~~ " ~~

So there you have it: the Fathers not only included the Deutero-Canonicals in the canonical texts of the Bible but liberally quoted from them and the Councils of Rome, Hippo and Carthage, which gave us the versions of the Bible that everyone uses, also included them.

The proof is conclusive.

The "Catholic" Bible is the real Bible and the Catholic Church decided which texts were in the Bible.

No Catholic Church - no Bible.


Monday 1 April 2013

Easter Monday: "the Lord has arisen and appeared to Peter..."

Easter Monday:
"the Lord has arisen and appeared to Peter..."

LESSON Acts 10:37-43
In those days, Peter, standing in the midst of the people, said, "You know the word which hath been published through all Judea: for it began from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached. Jesus of Nazareth: how God anointed him with the Holy Ghost and with power, who went about doing good and healing all that were oppressed by the devil, for God was with him. And we are witnesses of all things that he did in the land of the Jews and in Jerusalem: whom they killed, hanging him upon a tree. Him God raised up the third day and gave him to be made manifest, Not to all the people, but to witnesses preordained by God, even to us, who did eat and drink with him, after he arose again from the dead. And he commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that it is he who was appointed by God to be judge of the living and of the dead. To him all the prophets give testimony, that by his name all receive remission of sins, who believe in him."

GRADUAL Ps. 117:24, 2
This is the day the Lord has made; let us be glad and rejoice in it.
V. Let Israel proclaim now that the Lord is good, that His mercy endures forever.

Alleluia, alleluia!
V. An angel of the Lord came down from heaven, and drawing near, rolled back the stone, and sat on it.

To the Paschal victim let Christians
Offer up their songs of praise.
The Lamb has redeemed the sheep:
Christ who is without sin
Has reconciled sinners to the Father.
Death and life have fought a huge battle,
The Prince of Life was dead, but lives and reigns.
Tell us, Mary, what did you see on your way?
'The tomb of Christ, who is alive,
And I saw the glory of his rising;
Angels standing as witnesses, the shroud and linen cloth.
Christ my hope has risen:
He has gone to Galilee before you'.
More trust should be placed in truthful Mary
Than in the deceitful crowd among the Jews.
Truly, we know Christ has risen from the dead:
O King and victor, have mercy on us. Amen. Alleluia.

GOSPEL Luke 24:12-53
[12] But Peter rising up, ran to the sepulchre, and stooping down, he saw the linen cloths laid by themselves; and went away wondering in himself at that which was come to pass. [13] And behold, two of them went, the same day, to a town which was sixty furlongs from Jerusalem, named Emmaus. [14] And they talked together of all these things which had happened. [15] And it came to pass, that while they talked and reasoned with themselves, Jesus himself also drawing near, went with them. [16] But their eyes were held, that they should not know him. [17] And he said to them: What are these discourses that you hold one with another as you walk, and are sad? [18] And the one of them, whose name was Cleophas, answering, said to him: Art thou only a stranger to Jerusalem, and hast not known the things that have been done there in these days? [19] To whom he said: What things? And they said: Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, who was a prophet, mighty in work and word before God and all the people; [20] And how our chief priests and princes delivered him to be condemned to death, and crucified him. [21] But we hoped, that it was he that should have redeemed Israel: and now besides all this, today is the third day since these things were done. [22] Yea and certain women also of our company affrighted us, who before it was light, were at the sepulchre, [23] And not finding his body, came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, who say that he is alive. [24] And some of our people went to the sepulchre, and found it so as the women had said, but him they found not. [25] Then he said to them: O foolish, and slow of heart to believe in all things which the prophets have spoken. [26] Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and so to enter into his glory? [27] And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded to them in all the scriptures, the things that were concerning him. [28] And they drew nigh to the town, whither they were going: and he made as though he would go farther. [29] But they constrained him; saying: Stay with us, because it is towards evening, and the day is now far spent. And he went in with them. [30] And it came to pass, whilst he was at table with them, he took bread, and blessed, and brake, and gave to them. [31] And their eyes were opened, and they knew him: and he vanished out of their sight. [32] And they said one to the other: Was not our heart burning within us, whilst he spoke in this way, and opened to us the scriptures? [33] And rising up, the same hour, they went back to Jerusalem: and they found the eleven gathered together, and those that were staying with them, [34] Saying: The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. [35] And they told what things were done in the way; and how they knew him in the breaking of the bread. [36] Now whilst they were speaking these things, Jesus stood in the midst of them, and saith to them: Peace be to you; it is I, fear not. [37] But they being troubled and frightened, supposed that they saw a spirit. [38] And he said to them: Why are you troubled, and why do thoughts arise in your hearts? [39] See my hands and feet, that it is I myself; handle, and see: for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as you see me to have. [40] And when he had said this, he shewed them his hands and feet. [41] But while they yet believed not, and wondered for joy, he said: Have you any thing to eat? [42] And they offered him a piece of a broiled fish, and a honeycomb. [43] And when he had eaten before them, taking the remains, he gave to them. [44] And he said to them: These are the words which I spoke to you, while I was yet with you, that all things must needs be fulfilled, which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me. [45] Then he opened their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures. [46] And he said to them: Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise again from the dead, the third day: [47] And that penance and remission of sins should be preached in his name, unto all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. [48] And you are witnesses of these things. [49] And I send the promise of my Father upon you: but stay you in the city till you be endued with power from on high. [50] And he led them out as far as Bethania: and lifting up his hands, he blessed them. [51] And it came to pass, whilst he blessed them, he departed from them, and was carried up to heaven. [52] And they adoring went back into Jerusalem with great joy. [53] And they were always in the temple, praising and blessing God. Amen.

An angel of the Lord came down from heaven and said to the women, "He whom you seek has risen as He said," alleluia!

Accept, O Lord, the prayers and sacrifice of Your people. May the beginning of this Easter celebration, through Your help, heal us for all eternity. Through Our Lord.

The Lord has risen, and has appeared to Peter, alleluia!

O Lord, fill us with the spirit of Your love, so that by receiving this Easter Sacrament our hearts may be united in You. Through Our Lord.


EASTER SUNDAY: Christus surrexit hodie sicut dixit! Alleluia!

Happy Easter to all!

Christus surrexit,
sicut dixit,

Christ is risen
as he said!

[Correggio. Noli me tangere. 1525]
"When the sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Salome, bought spices so that they might come and anoint Jesus...and on a sabbath morning they came to the sepulchre after sunrise...and looking up they saw that the stone was rolled back. Alleluia!"
[Taverner, Dum transisset sabbatum from Mark 16, sung at the Easter Vigil mass of Holy Saturday night]

"The Angels said to her 'Woman, why are you weeping?'. She said to them 'Because they have taken away my Lord and I do not know where they have laid Him'. Saying this she turned round and saw Jesus standing but she did not know that it was Jesus. Supposing Him to be the gardener, she said to Him 'Sir, if you have carried Him away tell me where you have laid Him and I will take Him away'. And Jesus said to her 'Mary'. She turned and said to Him in Hebrew 'Rabboni!'".
[John 20]
"She went and said to the Disciples 'I have seen the Lord!' "
[John 20]

John Taverner (1490-1545). Dum Transisset Sabbatum. Sung by the Tallis Scholars.

Dum transisset Sabbatum,
Maria Magdalene et Maria Jacobi et Salome
emerunt aromata ut venientes ungerent Jesum.
Et valde mane una sabbatorum veniunt ad monumentum orto iam sole ut venientes ungerent Jesum.
Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto.

And when the Sabbath was past,
Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James and Salome
had brought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him.
And very early in the morning, the first day of the week,
they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun that they might come and anoint him.
Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit.
[Dum Transisset Sabbatum - taken from the Gospel of St Mark, Ch16]

Carl Heinrich Bloch. The Resurrection.

Victimae paschali laudes
immolent Christiani
Agnus redemit oves:
Christus innocens Patri
Reconciliavit peccatores.
Mors et vita duello conflixere mirando,
Dux vitae mortuus, regnat vivus.
Dic nobis Maria, quid vidisti in via?
Sepulcrum Christi viventis,
Et gloriam vidi resurgentis:
Angelicos testes, sudarium et vestes.
Surrexit Christus spes mea:
Praecedet vos in Galilaeam.
Credendum est magis soli
Mariae veraci
Quam Judaeorum
Turbae fallaci.
Scimus Christum surrexisse
a mortuis vere:
Tu nobis, victor Rex, miserere.
Amen. Alleluia.

[Wipo of Burgundy, Victimi Paschali Laudes. 1040. Sung on Easter Sunday]
Surrexit Christus hodie! Alleluia!

Christ is risen today! Alleluia!